Social sector in Balochistan suffered negligence for years. Investments in education and health sectors mean formation of human capital that can tap the province’s natural endowment. The underdeveloped education and health sectors contributed largely to the prevailing backwardness in the province. The social indicators are appalling in the province with illiteracy nearly at 60 percent, a small scattered population in large area, low primary school enrolment ratio and insufficient facilities for healthcare. No doubt, a healthy and educated population is real capital or human capital that can ensure development and off course the fruitful returns from the vast natural resources in the province.
The policy makers in Quetta and Islamabad should focus on the development of social sector and make significant investments in education and health to produce the required social capital for the economic development of Balochistan. The province will take years to come at par with developed regions of the country. Balochistan government must continue to give priority to the development of social sector in the annual budget of the province. It is worth mentioning that development of the social sector has been the special focus of the Balochistan budget for the last two years. The development spending for education and health sectors had been significantly increased. Former provincial government announced opening of 300 new schools and upgradation of another 300 schools throughout the province. It also announced to build three medical colleges in the province. It planned to purchase medical equipment and machinery to better equip the Basic Health Units in Balochistan.
The recent efforts on the part of the government in developing the social sector will only be fruitful if the funds are properly, rationally and honestly utilized through a well-developed institutional network. The lack of institutional framework has been the main cause of underutilization of annual development funds in the province. It has been observed that physical targets do not match with fiscal targets. The government should first pay heed to the institutional development in the province.
Poor education reduces the productivity of investments and weakens governance. Performance improvement in the educational arena can yield great potential returns in terms of development in the province. With low participation in general education and low completion rates at primary and secondary levels, the unemployment and underemployment rates in the province are higher than the national rates. Job vacancies are often unfilled due to lack of trained personnel.
An effective and sustained educational reform hinges on a combination of policy and institutional changes. Equally important is to invest the right amounts for the appropriate types of education. The illiteracy is higher in Balochistan, and hence the people lack the initiative and entrepreneurial ability. The province has no skilled and trained labor to utilize its natural resources. Resultantly, its resource potential remained untapped and the province has been caught up in underdevelopment trap. Education actually distinguishes the poor from the non-poor. For example, the proportion of literate household heads in poor households is almost half that of non-poor households. Poor households on average have 75% more children than the non-poor households. Most of these children are not receiving any education, and thus the cycle of poverty is perpetuated. There is a strong correlation between household income and school enrollment.
The province has a poor record in educating girls. Only about one-third of girls, who should be in primary school, are enrolled in the province. Balochistan’s gross primary school enrollment rates show a significant disparity between male and female enrollment. Overall education levels cannot be improved without making a significant advance in the education of girls in the province. The social divide in enrollment along gender lines should be eliminated in the province.
The health indicators in Balochistan like infant and mother mortality are poorer than any other province. Major causes of water-related diseases include lack of water supply and sanitation facilities, absence of proper sewerage disposal, waste mismanagement and contaminated water. These diseases can be prevented by facilitating the population with proper sewerage and sanitation disposal systems. A healthy population can work better for the economic progress of the province fully utilizing its capabilities and skills. For obtaining this health capital in the province, there is a high need to resolve basic and pressing issues related to the health sector. In rural areas, the health status is relatively poor. Lack or absence of female health staff including female doctors in rural areas worsens the situation. According to an estimate, there is only one doctor available for 7300 persons in average.
The development in health and education sectors leads to human resource development. The concept of good governance and a strong civil society remains vague without a population with a basic level of education and health standards. In the next budget, the provincial government must focus on improvement and formation of human capital to tap internal and external markets, and capitalize on market-driven economic growth. Governance reforms in the province need to be implemented and the institutions in the social sector can be strengthened to improve the effectiveness of public and private social service delivery. The key areas need to focused for human development in Balochistan include a rational and long-term planning, on-job training programs, technical education according to the needs of 21st century, secondary level education for development of critical skills, allocation of significant resources, setting up of technology institutes in various districts, the recruitment of qualified teachers, instructors and trainers, access to the high-tech computing services, information technology, scientific management related education and value adding knowledge. Human development provides a wide range of choices and opportunities to the people for employment, nutrition, education and health care.